Monday, 31 October 2016

Today Editorial.......

Exchange of fire between Indian and Pakistani forces on the Line of Control and the International Boundary has rendered(प्रदान की गई है) the 2003 ceasefire ever more fragile(नाज़ुक). On October 29, the Army said it had destroyed four Pakistani posts in Keran sector along the LoC and inflicted(दण्ड देना) heavy casualties. This came a day after Sepoy Mandeep Singh was killed in the Machhal sector and his body mutilated(क्षत-विक्षत) by a terrorist who fled across the LoC thereafter. In a social media post, the Army’s Northern Command had warned that the atrocity(क्रूरता) would invite an appropriate response, and the reprisal(प्रतिशोध) followed. This represents a major escalation in the ongoing exchange of fire. Ceasefire violations have become a daily occurrence since the terrorist attack on the Army camp in Uri in September and the subsequent “surgical strikes” by the Army. The use of 82 and 120 mm mortars in addition to small arms and light machine guns has become routine, a significant scale-up during peacetime. The firing has also spread to the IB, especially a 192-km stretch in Jammu that Pakistan refers to as the working boundary. In 2014, about 430 incidents of ceasefire violation were reported along the IB; in 2015 this dropped to 253. In contrast, till mid-October only four incidents had been reported along the IB — but that calm has been broken since the Uri attack. After the surgical strikes, there have been 60 ceasefire violations.
The brunt of these exchanges is borne(सेहन ) by the civilian population in the border villages. Hundreds have been shifted to shelters and bunkers for safety. The density of civilian settlement is much higher on the Indian side in comparison to Pakistan’s. As a result, the increased firing across the border creates more pressure on India. In fact, after the two countries agreed to a ceasefire in 2003, the resultant calm had won the confidence of local residents. Villagers began farming right up to the fence(घेरा), tourism picked up, and even informal border trade increased. The current spiral of violence threatens(धमकाना) this peace dividend. After the surgical strikes, the security forces retain a free hand in responding to infiltrations and instances of firing. No senior government functionary has publicly addressed the issue. Pakistan too is playing the incidents in large part on domestic considerations. However, the latest incident underscores the need for an urgent political initiative to prevent the cycle of brutality(निर्दयता) and reprisal from acquiring its own momentum, as happened in the early 2010s. It is time the government gathered the reins to address the issue politically and have peace restored on the border.
1)Rendered meaning is contribute, distribute, provide.
2)Fragile meaning is breakable, feeble, dainty.
3)Inflicted meaning is impose something, exact, expose.
4)Mutilated meaning is disfigured, mangled, dismembered.
5)Atrocity meaning is outrageous behavior, barbarity, enormity.
6)Reprisal meaning is revenge, retaliation, vengeance.
7)Borne meaning is carried, tolerated, endured.
8)Fence meaning is barricade, block, rail.
9)Threatens meaning is warn, pressure, intimidate.
10)Brutality meaning is cruelty, inhumanity, barbarism.

Sunday, 30 October 2016

Today Editorial.........

Pushed to a corner owing to lack of political will on the part of countries with a high burden of tuberculosis, the World Health Organisation has called for the first United Nations General Assembly session on the disease. The fight against TB cannot be won as long as the high-burden countries, particularly India which has the highest TB burden in the world, do not galvanise(प्रेरित करना ) their government machinery effectively. While the number of deaths caused by TB and the incidence rate had been consistently dropping from the historical highs globally, there has been a recent uptick(इजाफा ) that is much larger than previously estimated. The primary reason is the sharp increase in the incidence estimate from India — from 2.2 million cases in 2014 to 2.8 million in 2015. Ironically, the revised disease burden estimate for India is an “interim” one; the actual burden, which could be much higher, will be known only when the national TB prevalence(प्रसार ) survey that is scheduled to begin next year is completed. The number of estimated deaths caused by TB more than doubled from 220,000 in 2014 to 483,000 in 2015. As in the case of incidence(घटना ), the revised estimate for deaths could also be an underestimation.
The increase in incidence owes to a 34 per cent rise in case notifications by health-care providers in the private sector between 2013 and 2015. Yet, in 2015 notifications by doctors in the private sector comprised only 16 per cent of the total. Though notification was made mandatory in 2012, only 1.7 million incident TB cases in the public and private sectors were notified in 2015. Thus the fate(किस्मत ) of 1.1 million patients is simply not known: they have fallen off the radar. For an effective fight against TB, the control programme needs to be aware of every single patient diagnosed, and offer treatment to all. If there are only about 50 per cent of the patients approaching the private sector who successfully complete treatment, a recent study has shown that in 2013 only about 65 per cent of the 1.9 million who approached the public sector completed the treatment regime. The crisis has been aggravated(भड़काना ) with the disease becoming more expensive and difficult to treat and the number of people with drug-resistant(प्रतिरोधी ) forms increasing. The national TB control programme is behind schedule with respect to critical programmes including the expansion of the GeneXpert pilot programme, scaling up of drug sensitivity testing, and the introduction of a child-friendly paediatric(बाल चिकिस्ता ) TB drug. Only sustained(निरंतर ) action on several fronts can help bring TB under check. The global war will not be successful till India wins the battle within its own boundaries first.
1)Tuberculosis meaning is an infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules (tubercles) in the tissues, especially the lungs.
2)Galvanise meaning is inspire, stimulate. energize.
3)Uptick meaning is a small increase or slight upward trend.
4)Prevalence meaning is the fact or condition of being prevalent; commonness, predominance. 
5)Incidence meaning is the occurrence, rate, or frequency of a disease, crime, or other undesirable thing.
6)Fate meaning is destiny, chance, predetermined course.
7)Aggravated meaning is cause to become worse, annoy, irritate.
8)Resistant meaning is antagonistic, impervious, opposing.
9)Paediatric meaning is branch of medicine dealing with the health and medical care of infants, children, and adolescents from birth up to the age of 18.
10)Sustained meaning is keep-up, maintain, endure.

Monday, 24 October 2016

Computer Networks Topic----OSI Model

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is reference model for how applications can communicate over a network. A reference model is a conceptual framework for understanding relationships. The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs they create will interoperate, and to facilitate clear comparisons among communications tools. Most vendors involved in telecommunications make an attempt to describe their products and services in relation to the OSI model. And although useful for guiding discussion and evaluation, OSI is rarely actually implemented, as few network products or standard tools keep all related functions together in well-defined layers as related to the model. The TCP/IP protocols, which define the Internet, do not map cleanly to the OSI model.

OSI layers

The main concept of OSI is that the process of communication between two endpoints in a telecommunication network can be divided into seven distinct groups of related functions, or layers. Each communicating user or program is at a computer that can provide those seven layers of function. So in a given message between users, there will be a flow of data down through the layers in the source computer, across the network and then up through the layers in the receiving computer. The seven layers of function are provided by a combination of applications, operating systems, network card device drivers and networking hardware that enable a system to put a signal on a network cable or out over Wi-Fi or other wireless protocol).
The seven Open Systems Interconnection layers are:

Layer 1: The Physical Layer :

  1. It is the lowest layer of the OSI Model.
  2. It activates, maintains and deactivates the physical connection.
  3. It is responsible for transmission and reception of the unstructured raw data over network.
  4. Voltages and data rates needed for transmission is defined in the physical layer.
  5. It converts the digital/analog bits into electrical signal or optical signals.
  6. Data encoding is also done in this layer.

Layer 2: Data Link Layer :

  1. Data link layer synchronizes the information which is to be transmitted over the physical layer.
  2. The main function of this layer is to make sure data transfer is error free from one node to another, over the physical layer.
  3. Transmitting and receiving data frames sequentially is managed by this layer.
  4. This layer sends and expects acknowledgements for frames received and sent respectively. Resending of non-acknowledgement received frames is also handled by this layer.
  5. This layer establishes a logical layer between two nodes and also manages the Frame traffic control over the network. It signals the transmitting node to stop, when the frame buffers are full.

Layer 3: The Network Layer :

  1. It routes the signal through different channels from one node to other.
  2. It acts as a network controller. It manages the Subnet traffic.
  3. It decides by which route data should take.
  4. It divides the outgoing messages into packets and assembles the incoming packets into messages for higher levels.

Layer 4: Transport Layer :

  1. It decides if data transmission should be on parallel path or single path.
  2. Functions such as Multiplexing, Segmenting or Splitting on the data are done by this layer
  3. It receives messages from the Session layer above it, convert the message into smaller units and passes it on to the Network layer.
  4. Transport layer can be very complex, depending upon the network requirements.
Transport layer breaks the message (data) into small units so that they are handled more efficiently by the network layer.

Layer 5: The Session Layer :

  1. Session layer manages and synchronize the conversation between two different applications.
  2. Transfer of data from source to destination session layer streams of data are marked and are re-synchronized properly, so that the ends of the messages are not cut prematurely and data loss is avoided.

Layer 6: The Presentation Layer :

  1. Presentation layer takes care that the data is sent in such a way that the receiver will understand the information (data) and will be able to use the data.
  2. While receiving the data, presentation layer transforms the data to be ready for the application layer.
  3. Languages(syntax) can be different of the two communicating systems. Under this condition presentation layer plays a role of translator.
  4. It performs Data compression, Data encryption, Data conversion etc.

Layer 7: Application Layer :

  1. It is the topmost layer.
  2. Transferring of files disturbing the results to the user is also done in this layer. Mail services, directory services, network resource etc are services provided by application layer.
  3. This layer mainly holds application programs to act upon the received and to be sent data.

Merits of OSI reference model:

  1. OSI model distinguishes well between the services, interfaces and protocols.
  2. Protocols of OSI model are very well hidden.
  3. Protocols can be replaced by new protocols as technology changes.
  4. Supports connection oriented services as well as connectionless service.

Demerits of OSI reference model:

  1. Model was devised before the invention of protocols.
  2. Fitting of protocols is tedious task.
  3. It is just used as a reference model.

Today Editorial...

The challenges of a rapidly(तेजी से ) urbanising world and of providing people with equal opportunities in cities were the central themes at the just-concluded UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development, Habitat III, in Quito, Ecuador. As a once-in-a-generation event, the Habitat conference sets a guiding compass(दिशा सूचक यंत्र ) for member-countries for the next 20 years, and attracts wide governmental and civil society participation. Yet, the process has to be strengthened to evaluate how countries have fared(प्रदर्शन ) since the two previous conferences on issues such as reducing urban inequality, improving access to housing and sanitation, mobility, and securing the rights of women, children, older adults and people with disability. Moreover, as services come to occupy a dominant place in the urban economy, the divide between highly paid professionals and low-wage workers, the majority, has become pronounced. All these trends are relevant to India, where 31 per cent of the population and 26 per cent of the workforce was urban according to Census 2011, with more people moving to cities and towns each year. Urban governance policies, although mainly in the domain of the States, must be aligned with national commitments on reduction of carbon emissions under the Paris Agreement, and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 11.
India’s ambition(महत्वाकांक्षा) to harness(साज़) science and data for orderly urbanisation is articulated(स्पष्ट)in a set of policy initiatives, chiefly the Smart Cities Mission and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation. There is little evidence so far that these could achieve the scale needed to address the contradictions(विरोध) of building 21st century cities for 20th century industrial technologies. Today, these conflicts(संघर्ष ) are reflected in the lack of adequate parks and public spaces, suitable land for informal workers who offer services in a city, egalitarian(समानाधिकारवादी) and non-polluting mobility options and new approaches to low-cost housing. In the national report prepared for the Quito conference, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation identified subsidised redevelopment of slums (which represented 17 per cent of urban households in 2011) involving private agencies, and low-cost, disaster-resistant, prefabricated(बना हुआ ) constructions as key to the ‘Housing for All’ policy. This important programme should be pursued with a vigorous annual review that ranks States on the basis of performance. The Centre should also take its own National Urban Transport Policy on developing cities around mobility networks seriously, and liberate cities from the tyranny(उत्पीड़न ) of traffic. UN Habitat plans to review country-level progress on its New Urban Agenda in Kuala Lumpur in 2018. India’s performance on improving the quality of life in its cities will be watched.
1)Rapidly meaning is briskly, immediately, promptly. 
2)Compass meaning is direction, cynosure, focus.
3)Fared meaning is fare, itinerate, proceed and get along.
4)Ambition meaning is aspiration, desire,vanity
5)Harness meaning is  make use of, utilize, spend.
6)Articulated meaning is clear , apparent, straightforward.
7)Contradiction meaning is incongruity, paradox, denial. 
8)Conflict meaning is lack of agreement or harmony, dissonant, dissent, discord.
9)Prefabricated meaning is ready, prepared.
10)Tyranny meaning is harassment, oppression, enormity.

Sunday, 23 October 2016

Practice Book for SBI IT Officer Exam

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Saturday, 22 October 2016

Detail Syllabus of Professional Knowledge For SBI IT Officer Exam

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Important Database Terminology Part-1

Database-A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images.
Table-This is the structure defined to store data under it. It is also called as an ENTITY.

Fields-It is also known as attributes in database terminology. It defines the property of an entity. In other words it is called as column in a table. 
For example if we have a company where employee details and department details are gathered. Employee details like empname, age, address and so on each of which form attribute is stored under structure called as EMP table Similarly department details like department name, manager and so on each of which denote field are stored in a structure called d DEPT table. Relational Database is nothing but organizing data in tabular form by creating structures as above.

ACID – The acronym standing for the properties maintained by standard database management systems, standing for Atomicity,ConsistencyIsolation, and Durability.
  • Atomicity − This property states that a transaction must be treated as an atomic unit, that is, either all of its operations are executed or none. There must be no state in a database where a transaction is left partially completed. States should be defined either before the execution of the transaction or after the execution/abortion/failure of the transaction.
  • Consistency − The database must remain in a consistent state after any transaction. No transaction should have any adverse effect on the data residing in the database. If the database was in a consistent state before the execution of a transaction, it must remain consistent after the execution of the transaction as well.
  • Durability − The database should be durable enough to hold all its latest updates even if the system fails or restarts. If a transaction updates a chunk of data in a database and commits, then the database will hold the modified data. If a transaction commits but the system fails before the data could be written on to the disk, then that data will be updated once the system springs back into action.
  • Isolation − In a database system where more than one transaction are being executed simultaneously and in parallel, the property of isolation states that all the transactions will be carried out and executed as if it is the only transaction in the system. No transaction will affect the existence of any other transaction.
Application Server – An application server that processes application-specific database operations made from application client programs. The DBMS is in-process with the application code for very fast internal access.

BLOB – An abbreviation for Binary Large OBject. In SQL BLOB can be a general term for any data of type long varbinarylong varchar, or long wvarchar. It is also a specific term (and synonym) for data of type long varbinary.

Deadlock – A situation in which resources (i.e. locks) are held by two or more connections that are each needed by the other connections so that they are stuck in an infinite wait loop. For example, connection 1 has a lock on table1 and is requesting a lock on table2 that is currently held by connection 2 which is also requesting a lock on table1. There are programming practices that can be used that will prevent deadlocks from ever occurring.

Deterministic – An attribute of a section of code whereby the limit on the time required to execute the code is known, or determined, ahead of time. This is commonly associated with real-time software.

Distributed Database – A database in which its data is distributed among multiple computers or devices (nodes) allowing multiple computers to simultaneously access data residing on separate nodes. The Internet of Things (IoT) is frequently considered a vast grid of data collection devices, requiring distributed database functionality to manage.

Friday, 21 October 2016

Thursday, 20 October 2016

Today Editorial.........

The outcomes of the latest meeting of the Council tasked with steering( परिचालक ) the Goods and Services Tax regime are worrying. For one, it leaves the Centre hard-pressed to meet its intended deadline for the new indirect tax regime, April 1, 2017. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley had set a November 22 target to resolve all operational issues with State representatives in the Council so that the rates and implementation modalities(तौर तरीकों ) could be codified into law and passed by Parliament in the winter session. When it met for the first time in late September, things appeared to be on track, with the Council agreeing almost unanimously(सर्वसमति से ) on technicalities such as the turnover thresholds for firms to be covered under the GST and the division of administrative control over tax assessees between the Centre and the States. A time-bound road map to finalise remaining details, such as the tax rates, compensation(नुक्सान भरपाई ) for States in case of revenue loss under the new system, as well as the legislative actions required in Parliament and the State Assemblies, was also agreed upon.
As the winter session approaches, that spirit of cooperation has evaporated: the Council has agreed on precious(कीमती ) little, including the tax rates proposed by the Centre. Worse, the pact reached earlier on administrative control of manufacturing sector assessees has unravelled(सुलझाया ) with States raising fresh concerns. The proposal to subsume in the GST all cess(टैक्स ) levies, several of them introduced by the present NDA government, has been discarded. This was a critical part of the official GST pitch and was backed by the Council in September. But now the Finance Ministry is keen on an additional cess on ultra-luxury and ‘sin’ goods to fund compensation for States losing revenue. It has suggested a cess may be better than the 40 per cent slab for demerit goods, mooted by a committee led by Chief Economic Advisor Arvind Subramanian along with two other slabs of 12 per cent and 17-18 per cent. With a four-tier GST rate structure, a 4 per cent tax on gold (in line with the CEA’s advice), in addition to some exemptions(छूट ) that would be granted as tax refunds, topped with the new cess to compensate States, the new regime could well just be old wine in a new bottle, from the taxpayers’ perspective. Mr. Jaitley has explained that the rate proposals are meant to prevent a spurt(उछाल ) in retail inflation. But to bring about convergence(अभिसरण ) with States at the Council’s next meetings in November and bring its showcase reform item back on track, the government needs to return to the drawing board.
1)Steering meaning is guide, direct on a course,escort.
2)Modalities meaning is method, approach, process, procedure.
3)Unanimously meaning is collectively, commonly, of one mind.
4)Compensation meaning is repayment, rectification, allowances. 
5)Precious meaning is favorite, rare, expensive.
6)Unravelled meaning is solve, untangle, unfold
7)Cess meaning is tax
8)Exemption meaning is freedom from responsibility, discharge, immunity.
9)Spurt meaning is burst of activity, erupt, surge.
10)Convergence meaning is union, concurrence, confluence.

Coded Inequality Reasoning Topic

Understand the complete concept of Reasoning Chapter Coded Inequality
and Score 5+ Marks in Exam

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MCQ-5 Video For SBI IT Officer Exam

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Important Question for SBI IT Officer Exams  Note down and learn it all ....

Today Editorial....

A video released by film-maker Karan Johar pledging(वचन)  not to work with “talent from the neighbouring country” is obviously a last-ditch attempt to salvage(नुकसान होने से बचना ) his forthcoming production, Ae Dil Hai Mushkil. With the effect of a Rorschach test, Johar’s pitch can be read in divergent ways. At one level, as an outright capitulation(संधिपत्र ) to the mob, angrily led in Mumbai by the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena, as well as to a wider audience currently consumed by a low-grade intolerance(असहिष्णुता ) of anything Pakistani. At another, as a cleverly coded defence of a film starring Pakistani actor Fawad Khan by drawing attention to the labour of “300 Indians” on the project who face unfair rejection. Either way, the larger issue is the ease with which a boycott(बहिष्कार ) of people from a particular country is enforced, so that everyone is intimidated into falling in line to a Tebbit-like test. Mumbai has, of course, long kept Pakistani sportspersons at bay. Three years ago, the Pakistani women’s cricket team at the World Cup had be shifted out to Cuttack, diminishing not just Mumbai, but India itself for the failure to uphold the spirit of sport essential to a liberal democracy. Last year, even Pakistani umpires and television commentators were compelled(मजबूर ) to pull out of their duties at an international match in Mumbai. It’s not Mumbai alone. In 2013, for instance, no team fielded Sri Lankan cricketers in Indian Premier League matches in Chennai.
But the current, post-Uri rash of objections to Pakistani artists is widespread — concerts have been cancelled from Gurgaon to Bengaluru, and the airwaves crackle regularly with some film or sport personality averring(सिद्ध करना ) to keep apart from his Pakistani counterparts. However, it would be under-reading the challenge to India’s syncretic(समधर्मी ) legacy if the political silence around such boycotts was not highlighted. It is not enough for officials at the Centre to say that there is no change in the visa policy for Pakistani citizens. When the political leadership — in government and in Opposition — does not take the lead in persuading the silent majority that barriers to cultural and academic exchange are undemocratic and represent a closure of the Indian mind, it renders vulnerable(चपेट में ) the scattered individuals who are willing to stand up to bullying. On Pakistan, the ambivalent(उभयभावी) attitude to snapping cultural ties highlights important foreign policy questions. Do we use India’s incredible soft power to win over Pakistanis and others to the ideals of democracy, liberalism, secularism, syncretism for the greater good of the neighbourhood? Or do we reduce all people-to-people contact to unrelenting enmity?
1)Pledging meaning is word of honor, promise, sign of good faith, guarantee.
2)Salvage meaning is save, rescue, recover.
3)Capitulation meaning is giving in, submission, yielding
4)Intolerance meaning is lack of willingness to tolerate, bigotry.
5)Boycott meaning is ban, refrain from using, exclude, avoid.
6)Compelled meaning is force to act, impel, enforce.
7)Averring meaning is affirm, assert, maintain.
8)Syncretic meaning is the attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles,practices or parties, as in philosophy or religion.
9)Vulnerable meaning is accessible, weak, open to attack, unsafe.
 10)Ambivalent meaning is conflicting, contradictory, doubtful.

Wednesday, 19 October 2016

MCQ-4 SBI Officer Exams Video

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MCQ-4 Theory for SBI IT Officer Exam

1)A virtual private network, also known as a VPN, is a private network that extends across a public network or internet. It enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
VPN is designed to provides a secure , encrypted  tunnel in which to transmit the data between the remote user and the company network.The information transmitted between the two locations via the encrypted tunnel cannot be read by anyone else.

2)check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computer-generated data. It consists of one or more digits computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input.
With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits.
Check digit are used to protect against the transposition or other transcription errors.

3)SDLC is the acronym of Software Development Life Cycle. It is also called as Software development process. ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for software life-cycle processes.
SDLC is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization. It consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process.
There are following six phases in every SDLC model:
Requirement gathering and analysis, Design, Implementation or coding, Testing, Deployment and Maintenance.
Waterfall Model, Iterative Model, Spiral Model, V-Model, Big Bang Model are the most important and popular models of SDLC.

4)In java, methods operate on the internal state of an object and the object-to-object communication is done via methods. Object A calls a method on object B. This is clearly the simplest type of communication between two objects but is also the way which result in the highest coupling. Object A’s class has a dependency upon object B’s class. Wherever you try to take object A’s class, object B’s class(and all of its dependencies ) are coming with it.

5)LGWR(Log writer) writes log entries to the online redo log files in batches. The redo log buffer entries always  contain the most up to date status of the database.

6)A lock is a variable associated with a data item that describes the status of the item with respect to possible operations that can be applied to it. Generally, there is one lock for each data item in the database. Locks are used as a means of synchronizing the access by concurrent transactions to the database item.
Locks placed by a command issued to the DBMS from the application program or query user are called explicit commands.

7)A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a logical group of workstations, servers and network devices that appear to be on the same LAN despite their geographical distribution. A VLAN allows a network of computers and users to communicate in a simulated environment as if they exist in a single LAN and are sharing a single broadcast and multicast domain. VLANs are implemented to achieve scalability, security and ease of network management and can quickly adapt to change in network requirements and relocation of workstations and server nodes. 
Higher-end switches allow the functionality and implementation of VLANs. The purpose of implementing a VLAN is to improve the performance of a network or apply appropriate security features.
A Vlan equals to a subnet. It won’t matter if you have 2 PCs on different subnets and you assign the same VLAN to both switch ports. They won’t be able to talk to one another. The subnet ranges must match and VLAN IDs much match for them to talk locally.

8)UML stands for Unified Modeling Language which is used in object oriented software engineering. Although typically used in software engineering it is a rich language that can be used to model an application structures, behavior and even business processes. There are 14 UML diagram types to help you model these behavior.
They can be divided into two main categories; structure diagrams and behavioral diagrams. 

9)RSA is one of the first practical public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In such a cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and differs from the decryption key which is kept secret.

10)The model database is used as the template for all databases created on an instance of a SQL Server. Because tempdb is created every time SQL Server is started, the model database must always exist a SQL Server System. Modifications made to the model database, such as database size, collation, recovery model and other database options are applied to any databases created afterward.


Tuesday, 18 October 2016

Today Editorial

The Centre’s categorical stand that personal laws should be in conformity with the Constitution will be of immense(अत्यधिक) assistance to the Supreme Court in determining the validity of practices such as triple talaq and polygamy(बहुविवाह ). By arguing that such practices impact adversely on the right of women to a life of dignity, the Centre has raised the question whether constitutional protection given to religious practices should extend even to those that are not in compliance(अनुपालन ) with fundamental rights. The distinction between practices essential or integral to a particular religion, which are protected under Article 25, a provision that seeks to preserve the freedom to practise and propagate(फैलाना  ) any religion, and those that go against the concepts of equality and dignity, which are fundamental rights, is something that the court will have to carefully evaluate while adjudicating(निर्णायक ) the validity of the Muslim practices under challenge. From the point of view of the fundamental rights of those affected, mostly women, there is a strong case for these practices to be invalidated. The idea that personal laws of religions should be beyond the scope of judicial review, and that they are not subject to the Constitution, is inherently abhorrent. The affidavit in which the All India Muslim Personal Law Board sought to defend triple talaq and polygamy is but an execrable(घिनौना ) summary of the patriarchal notions(विचार ) entrenched(मोरचा  करना ) in conservative sections of society.
This is not the first time that aspects of Muslim personal law have come up for judicial adjudication. On triple talaq, courts have adopted the view that Islam does not sanction divorce without reason or any attempt at reconciliation(सुलाह ), and that talaq would not be valid unless some conditions are fulfilled. There are judgments that say the presence of witnesses during the pronouncement of talaq, sound reasons for the husband to seek a divorce and some proof that an attempt was made for conciliation are conditions precedent for upholding a divorce. The present petition(याचिका ) before the Supreme Court seeks a categorical ruling that talaq-e-bidat — an irrevocable(स्थिर ) form of triple talaq that is permitted but considered undesirable in Islam — is unconstitutional. There are many who contend that instant divorce is not allowed, and that the triple talaq has to be spread over a specified time period, during which there are two opportunities to revoke it. Only the articulation of the third makes it irrevocable. It should be possible for the court to test these practices for compliance with the Constitution.
1)Immense meaning is extremely large, boundless, enormous.
2)Polygamy meaning is plural marriage, having more than one spouse at a time.
3)Compliance meaning is agreement, conformity, consent.
4)Propagate meaning is spread, inseminate, reproduce, proliferate.
5)Adjudicating meaning is formally judge, arbitrate.
6)Execrable meaning is horrible, sickening, abominable.
7)Notion meaning is belief, idea, assumption.
8)Reconciliation meaning is compromise, harmony, accord, agreement.
9)Petition meaning is appeal, plea, request.
10)Irrevocable meaning is fixed, unchangeable, immutable, irreversible.


1) A passive attack is a network attack in which a system is monitored and sometimes scanned for open ports and vulnerabilities. The purpose is solely to gain information about the target and no data is changed on the target.Passive attacks have to do with eavesdropping on, or monitoring, transmissions. Electronic mail, file transfers, and client/server exchanges are examples of transmissions that can be monitored. Passive threat are very difficult to detect and equally difficult to prevent as well, where as active threats continue to make a changes to the system, they are easy to find out & fix as well.Malicious misuse/malicious intent is any from of tampering of the computer system which includes penetration or any form of illegal attraction of the computer which also includes the generation of illegal codes to alter the standard codes within the system.

An active attack is a network exploit in which a hacker attempts to make changes to data on the target or data en route to the target. Types of active attacks: In a masquerade attack, the intruder pretends to be a particular user of a system to gain access or to gain greater privileges than they are authorized for.Sabotage ,Accident Errors and Espionage Agents are all active threats.

2)  Varray stands for variable-size array. Varray can be stored in the columns of your tables. When you create varrays you must provide the maximum size for them. They retain their ordering and subscripts when stored in and retrieved from a database table. They are similar to PL/SQL table, and each element in a varray is assigned a subscript/index starting with 1.These are dense and Not sparse, which means there is no way to delete individual elements of a Varray.

3)The data dictionary is full of 'Metadata', information about what is going-on inside your database.The data dictionary is created when the Oracle database is created. It is owned by the SYS user, and is stored principally in the SYSTEM tablespace, though some components are stored in the SYSAUX tablespace in Oracle Database 10g. The data dictionary is comprised of a number of tables and Oracle views.No Oracle user should ever alter (UPDATEDELETE, or INSERT) any rows or schema objects contained in the SYS schema, because such activity can compromise data integrity. The security administrator must keep strict control of this central account.

4)Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that runs on bridges and switches. The specification for STP is IEEE 802.1D. The main purpose of STP is to ensure that you do not create loops when you have redundant paths in your network. Loops are deadly to a network.

5)Every Oracle Database must have a method of maintaining information that is used to roll back, or undo, changes to the database. Such information consists of records of the actions of transactions, primarily before they are committed. These records are collectively referred to as undo.
Undo records are used to:
  • Roll back transactions when a ROLLBACK statement is issued
  • Recover the database
  • Provide read consistency
  • Analyze data as of an earlier point in time by using Oracle Flashback Query
  • Recover from logical corruptions using Oracle Flashback features.

Oracle provides a fully automated mechanism, referred to as automatic undo management, for managing undo information and space. In this management mode, you create an undo tablespace, and the server automatically manages undo segments and space among the various active sessions.You set the UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization parameter to AUTO to enable automatic undo management. A default undo tablespace is then created at database creation. An undo tablespace can also be created explicitly. The methods of creating an undo tablespace are explained in "Creating an Undo Tablespace".When the instance starts, the database automatically selects the first available undo tablespace. If no undo tablespace is available, then the instance starts without an undo tablespace and stores undo records in the SYSTEM tablespace. This is not recommended in normal circumstances, and an alert message is written to the alert log file to warn that the system is running without an undo tablespace.
6) The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOSROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is a type of firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup) on IBM PC compatible computers, and to provide run time services for operating systems and programs.The BIOS firmware is built into personal computers (PCs), and it is the first software they run when powered on. 

7) RSA is one of the first practical public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In such a cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and differs from the decryption key which is kept secret. In RSA, this asymmetry is based on the practical difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers, thefactoring problem. RSA is made of the initial letters of the surnames of Ron RivestAdi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who first publicly described the algorithm in 1977. RSA is a relatively slow algorithm, and because of this it is less commonly used to directly encrypt user data. More often, RSA passes encrypted shared keys for symmetric key cryptography which in turn can perform bulk encryption-decryption operations at much higher speed.

8) INITRANS is a block level storage parameter which can be specified while creating a object (table). INITRANS and MAXTRANS parameters are used to control the concurrent access to the same block. There can be a maximum of 255 concurrent sessions that can access a block at any given time. So the maximum value for MAXTRANS parameter is 255. The value specified through INITRANS are taken into consideration for creating the initial number of ITLs (Intersted Transaction Entries) in the block.While creating the table if INITRANS 20 is specified, then 20 different ITL slots will be created in the block transaction variable header.
Each and every ITL entry in the block transaction variable header takes 24 bytes. Though a block can have a maximum of 255 different ITLs , the block is quite limited to allocate only some defined ITLs in the header. The database block size plays a important role in allocating the number of inital ITLs for the blocks.

9)Data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge discovery) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information - information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. Data mining software is one of a number of analytical tools for analyzing data. It allows users to analyze data from many different dimensions or angles, categorize it, and summarize the relationships identified. Technically, data mining is the process of finding correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large relational databases.Case based reasoning(CBR) is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past(real world) problems.Example: an auto mechanic who fixes an engine by recalling another car that exhibited similar symptoms is using a case based reasoning.
10)If there are n people communicating using a symmetric crptosystem, and each pair of people share a keys pair then there will be a total of [n+(n-1)]/2 pair of keys required. So for 20 people, 190 keys needed.
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