Predictive analytics encompasses a variety of statistical techniques from predictive modeling, machine learning, and data mining that analyze current and historical facts to make predictions about future or otherwise unknown events.
In business, predictive models exploit patterns found in historical and transactional data to identify risks and opportunities. Models capture relationships among many factors to allow assessment of risk or potential associated with a particular set of conditions, guiding decision making for candidate transactions.
Database mirroring is the creation and maintenance of redundant copies of a database. The purpose is to ensure continuous data availability and minimize or avoid downtime that might otherwise result from data corruption or loss, or from a situation when the operation of a network is partially compromised. Redundancy also ensures that at least one viable copy of a database will always remain accessible during system upgrades.
7) Which of the following is middle ware technology? CORBA
The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a standard developed by the Object Management Group (OMG) to provide interoperability among distributed objects. CORBA is the world's leading middleware solution enabling the exchange of information, independent of hardware platforms, programming languages, and operating systems. CORBA is essentially a design specification for an Object Request Broker (ORB), where an ORB provides the mechanism required for distributed objects to communicate with one another, whether locally or on remote devices, written in different languages, or at different locations on a network.The CORBA Interface Definition Language, or IDL, allows the development of language and location-independent interfaces to distributed objects. Using CORBA, application components can communicate with one another no matter where they are located, or who has designed them. CORBA provides the location transparency to be able to execute these applications.CORBA is often described as a "software bus" because it is a software-based communications interface through which objects are located and accessed. The illustration below identifies the primary components seen within a CORBA implementation.
8)A group of servers, If one server is failed and its users are switched instantly to the other servers is called Cluster.
Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) is a computer program that allows server computers to work together as a computer cluster, to provide failover and increased availability of applications, or parallel calculating power in case of high-performance computing (HPC) clusters (as in supercomputing).
Microsoft has three technologies for clustering: Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS, a HA clustering service), Component Load Balancing (CLB) (part of Application Center 2000), and Network Load Balancing Services (NLB). In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 the MSCS service has been renamed to Windows Server Failover Clustering and the Component Load Balancing (CLB) feature has been deprecated.
9)Conversion of message into a form,that cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people is called encryption.
Encryption is the conversion of electronic data into another form, called ciphertext, which cannot be easily understood by anyone except authorized parties.Network encryption (sometimes called network layer, or network level encryption) is a network security process that applies crypto services at the network transfer layer - above the data link level, but below the application level. The network transfer layers are layers 3 and 4 of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, the layers responsible for connectivity and routing between two end points. Using the existing network services and application software, network encryption is invisible to the end user and operates independently of any other encryption processes used. Data is encrypted only while in transit, existing as plaintext on the originating and receiving hosts.
10)Prototype model is a Systems Development Method (SDM)
The Prototyping Model is a systems development method (SDM) in which a prototype (an early approximation of a final system or product) is built, tested, and then reworked as necessary until an acceptable prototype is finally achieved from which the complete system or product can now be developed. This model works best in scenarios where not all of the project requirements are known in detail ahead of time. It is an iterative, trial-and-error process that takes place between the developers and the users.
Advantages of Prototype model:
- Users are actively involved in the development
- Since in this methodology a working model of the system is provided, the users get a better understanding of the system being developed.
- Errors can be detected much earlier.
- Quicker user feedback is available leading to better solutions.
- Missing functionality can be identified easily
- Confusing or difficult functions can be identified
Requirements validation, Quick implementation of, incomplete, but
Disadvantages of Prototype model:
- Leads to implementing and then repairing way of building systems.
- Practically, this methodology may increase the complexity of the system as scope of the system may expand beyond original plans.
- Incomplete application may cause application not to be used as the
full system was designed
Incomplete or inadequate problem analysis.
11) COM stands for Component Object Model
COM is a platform-independent, distributed, object-oriented system for creating binary software components that can interact. COM is the foundation technology for Microsoft's OLE (compound documents) and ActiveX (Internet-enabled components) technologies.COM objects can be created with a variety of programming languages. Object-oriented languages, such as C++, provide programming mechanisms that simplify the implementation of COM objects. These objects can be within a single process, in other processes, even on remote computers.
12) Term used in networks which has header and trailer – Packet
A data packet consists of three elements. The first element is a header, which contains the information needed to get the packet from the source to the destination, and the second element is a data area, which contains the information of the user who caused the creation of the packet. The third element of packet is a trailer, which often contains techniques ensuring that errors do not occur during transmission.During communication of data the sender appends the header and passes it to the lower layer while the receiver removes header and passes it to upper layer. Headers are added at layer 6,5,4,3 & 2 while Trailer is added at layer 2.
13) Project Management Tools. A Gantt chart, Logic Network, PERT chart, Product Breakdown Structure and Work Breakdown Structure are standard tools used in project planning.
The program (or project) evaluation and review technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a statistical mathematics tool, used in General project management, which was designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.A Gantt chart, commonly used in project management, is one of the most popular and useful ways of showing activities (tasks or events) displayed against time. On the left of the chart is a list of the activities and along the top is a suitable time scale. Each activity is represented by a bar; the position and length of the bar reflects the start date, duration and end date of the activity.
14) A network operating system (NOS) is a computer operating system system that is designed primarily to support workstation, personal computer, and, in some instances, older terminal that are connected on a local area network (LAN). Artisoft's LANtastic, Banyan VINES, Novell's NetWare, and Microsoft's LAN Manager are examples of network operating systems. In addition, some multi-purpose operating systems, such as Windows NT and Digital's OpenVMS come with capabilities that enable them to be described as a network operating system.A network operating system provides printer sharing, common file system and database sharing, application sharing, and the ability to manage a network name directory, security, and other housekeeping aspects of a network.
15) If you are on an Intranet, when you can’t access internet then what will you check? Proxy settings
A proxy or proxy server is basically another computer which serves as a hub through which internet requests are processed. By connecting through one of these servers, your computer sends your requests to the proxy server which then processes your request and returns what you were wanting. In this way it serves as an intermediary between your home machine and the rest of the computers on the internet. Proxies are used for a number of reasons such as to filter web content, to go around restrictions such as parental blocks, to screen downloads and uploads and to provide anonymity when surfing the internet.